Overweight and alcohol cause cancer in the esophagus
Being overweight and alcohol significantly increases the risk of developing cancer in the esophagus, according to a new major report.
The increase is so significant that the authors estimate that if all men were normal weight and did not drink alcohol would dissuade one in three cases of the disease.
The exhibition drew scientists from the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF).
The researchers came to their conclusions combination evaluating findings 46 scientific studies for esophageal cancer, diet, physical activity and body weight, which involved 15 million people, 31,000 of whom had been diagnosed with esophageal cancer.
The new findings are published nine years after a similar 2007 report.
The report, entitled «Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Esophageal Cancer» concludes that overweight and obese people are at increased risk of developing the most common form of esophageal cancer: adenocarcinoma.
As noted, with each increase of Body Mass Index (BMI) by 5 units, adenocarcinoma development chances are increased by 48%.
Adenocarcinoma accounts for more than 60% of esophageal cancers in developed countries and usually develops in the lower part of the body, to the point where it joins the stomach.
The BMI is calculated when dividing the current weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters. Prices from 25 to 29,9 kg / m2 mean that the person is overweight and prices from 30 to 34.9 means obesity first degree, second degree from 35 to 39.9 overweight and 40 or more malignant (or morbid) obesity.
The report also reveals that alcohol consumption increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (is the second main type of esophageal cancer). This increase is 25% per 10 grams of alcohol a day (equivalent to about a glass of wine or a glass of beer).
The squamous (or epithelial) cell carcinoma of the esophagus develops in cells lining the body and represents the third of esophageal cancer cases in developed countries.
According to data of the WCRF, esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world, with 456,000 new cases per year. 75% of the cases recorded in Asia.
«These findings reinforce the view that lifestyle plays a strong role in cancer risk,» said Dr. Alice Bender, head of Nutrition Programs in ACIR.
«Obesity is now associated with 11 types of cancer and alcohol for at least six, so the world can do much to protect.»
But by far the strongest risk factor for esophageal cancer occurrence is smoking and role playing and infection with oncogenic strain of human papillomavirus (HPV). The esophageal cancer is also more common in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and a condition called Barrett’s esophagus.
The factors that are not contained in the new report because they were not covered by it.